quinta-feira, 31 de março de 2011

Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul

The Complexo do Pantanal, or simply Pantanal is a biome consisting mainly of a savanna steppe, flooded for the most part, with 250 sq km in length, average elevation of 100 meters, located in southern Mato Grosso and northwestern Mato Grosso South, both states of Brazil, and also encompass the northern Paraguay and eastern Bolivia (which is called the Bolivian Chaco), considered by UNESCO World Natural Heritage and Biosphere Reserve, located in the Pantanal National Park. Despite the name, there are a few in the Pantanal wetlands. Moreover, it has few mountains which makes the flooding.


The complex name comes from the region have more than one Pantanal in them (7 in total), and divide into two regions:


The origin of the Pantanal is the result of the separation of the ocean millions of years. Animals that are present in the sea also exist in the marsh, forming what might be called an inland sea. The area flooded wetland is due to slow drainage of water flowing slowly through the region of the Middle Paraguay, in a place called the closing of the South Hills Attracted by the presence of precious metals and stones (which were used by Indians, who already populated the region, such as ornaments), among them the gold. The Portuguese Aleixo Garcia in 1524, became the first to visit the territory, which came through the Paraguay River Miranda, reaching the area where now stands the city of Corumbá. In the years 1537 and 1538, the Spanish Juan and his companion Ayolas Domingos Martinez de Irala followed by the Paraguay River and named Puerto de los Reyes to Gayva pond. Around 1542-1543, Alvaro Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (Spanish adventurer and) also came by to go to Peru. Between 1878 and 1930, the city of Corumbá (located inside the Pantanal) becomes the main commercial axis of the river and the old state Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul today, then loses its importance for the cities of Cuiabá and Campo Grande thus began a period of economic decline.

The incentive provided by governments from the 1960s to develop the Midwest region through the implementation of agricultural projects has brought many changes in the environments of the savanna, threatening their biodiversity. Concerned with the conservation of the Pantanal, Embrapa installed in 1975 in Corumba, a research unit for the region, in order to adapt, develop and transfer technologies for the sustainable use of natural resources. The research began with the cattle, the main economic activity, and today, besides cattle, covers several areas such as plant resources, fisheries, wildlife, water, climate, soil, assessment of impacts caused by human activities and socio- economy. Recent years have seen massive investments in the sector of ecotourism, with several inns pantaneiras practicing this form of sustainable tourism.


The Pantanal is one of the largest extensions (dry) solid planet and is located in the center of South America in the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Its area is 1.0 square kilometers, with 65% of its territory in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and 35% in Mato Grosso. The region is a lowland rain affected by rivers that drain the basin of the Upper Paraguay, where he developed a fauna and flora of rare beauty and abundance, influenced by four biomes: Amazon, Cerrado, Chaco and Atlantic Forest.

The Paraguay River and its tributaries run through the marsh, forming extensive wetlands that serve as shelter for many fish, such as painted, gold, pacu, and also other animals such as alligators, capybaras and otters, among other species . Many endangered animals in other parts of Brazil still have vigorous populations in the Pantanal region, as the swamp deer, capybara, caiman and the Jabiru.

Due to the low slope of this plain in a north-south and east-west, the water that falls in the headwaters of the Paraguay River, will spend four months or more to cross the entire Pantanal. Ecosystems are characterized by savannas and cerradões without periodic flooding, floodplains and aquatic environments such as freshwater ponds or brackish water, rivers, streams and low water.

The climate is hot and humid in summer, and although it is relatively cooler in the winter, continues to show great air moisture due to evapotranspiration associated with accumulated water in the soil horizon in the roots during the flood period. Most of the Pantanal soil is sandy and supports native pastures used by native herbivores and the cattle, introduced by settlers in the region. A small portion of the original grassland has been replaced by exotic forage species such as Brachiaria (4.5% in 2006). The surface energy balance (ie, the energy exchange between the surface and atmosphere) is very much influenced by the presence of layers of water that partially cover the ground every summer, and the special characteristics of water and energy balances ultimately influence the development of regional atmospheric boundary layer.

The plain of the Pantanal has approximately 230,000 km ², as estimated by scholars that explain what can hardly be established an exact calculation of its dimensions, for at several points to be very difficult to establish where it begins and ends the Pantanal and the regions that surround it, beyond the closing of each cycle of seasons of drought and water Pantanal changes.

Its area is 124.457.145.22 km ² (64.64% in Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso in 35.36%. Considered one of the largest sedimentary plains of the planet, the Pantanal is extended by Bolivia and Paraguay, countries where receives other names, and Chaco the best known.

Its constitution, only the planet, is the result of the separation of the ocean millions of years ago, forming what might be called an inland sea. The plain is gently undulating, punctuated by rare isolated elevations, often called mountains and hills, and rich in shallow depressions. Its boundaries are marked by different systems increases as plains, mountains and massive, and is cut by a large number of rivers of different sizes, all belonging to the Paraguay River Basin - the main rivers are the Cuiaba Piquiri, St. Lawrence, Taquari , Aquidauana, Miranda and Apa. The Pantanal is bounded on the Brazilian side (north, east and southeast) of land in altitude between 600 and 700 meters, extends west to the foothills of the Andes and extends south central plains Pampa.

The Pantanal lives under the design of water: there, the rain divides life into two very different periods. During the months of drought - from May to October or so - the landscape undergoes radical changes: the decline of water, fields are discovered, sandbars, islands and rivers resume their natural beds, but not always following the course of the period earlier. The water flowing by depressions in the ground, forming streams (channels that connect the waters of bays, lagoons, wetlands etc.. With rivers nearby).

In large fields covered mainly by grasses and savannah vegetation, surface water gets scarce, restricted to the perennial rivers, with bed set, large lakes near these rivers, called bays, and some smaller ponds and swamps in lower areas of the plain. In many places, it becomes necessary to use ground water, groundwater or aquifers, are using hand pumps and or played with wind mills to guarantee supplies to homes and watering of domestic animals.

The first rains of the season fall on a soil dry and porous and are easily absorbed. From November to April the torrential rains fall in the headwaters of the Paraguay River Basin in the north. With the constant wetting of the land, the plain soon becomes green due to the regrowth of many species resistant to water shortages in previous months. This large increase in periodic water mains in the Pantanal, the low slope of the plain and the difficulty of disposal of water by flooding, are responsible for flooding in low areas, forming bays of hundreds of square kilometers, giving the region an aspect the vast inland sea.

The downpour elevates the level of permanent bays, creates other, overflowing rivers and flooded fields in the vicinity, and isolated hills stand out as true islands covered with vegetation - groupings of these islands are called the Wetland ridges - ridges on the islands and the animals refuge seeking shelter from the rising waters.

At that time it becomes difficult to travel to the Pantanal because many roads are flooded and impassable. The transport of people, animals and goods can only be done on the backs of pack animals and boats - many farms and settlements (also known as corrutela) located in low areas are isolated from supply centers and access to them, often can only be done by boat or plane.

With the rising waters, large amounts of organic matter is carried by the current and carried considerable distances. Represented mainly by masses of floating vegetation and marginal and dead animals in the flood, these remnants, during ebb tide, are deposited on the banks and shores of rivers, lakes and wetlands and, after rapid decomposition, they form the fertilizing element of soil, capable of the enormous diversity of vegetation types existing there.

Among the varied vegetation are countless species of animals adapted to that region of such contradictory aspects. This immense variety of life, expressed in constant motion of shapes, colors and sounds is one of the most beautiful spectacles on Earth. Because of this alternation between dry and wet periods, the Pantanal landscape is never the same, changing every year: the riverbeds change their routes, the large bays alter their designs.

Costumes Pantaneiros


The Pantanal has the habit of waking up too early, the read of his business, for example: a read of their animals in the great plains of the region. In his morning feed, then in the morning before going to read, has a habit of eating very well. This habit is called the break-bent, which is practically a strengthened coffee, bread, rice with dried beef, coffee and other treats offered by the vast plain.

The Tereré

Guarani tradition inherited from the Tereré is a drink served in gourd with yerba mate and water ice. It is quite consumed by the wetland, mainly before noon, after the completion of morning work. It also takes tereré the afternoon and night before, often in conversations among families wheels, pedestrians or friends. This custom has also arrived in the cities of the Pantanal, where people gather on the sidewalks for a "talk for nothing" and refresh themselves with drink. In other regions, as in the West of Paraná, he is filled with soda, but the original tereré composed only of yerba mate and natural water. In the northern region of Mato Grosso do Sul tereré aims to rescue legends, myths, regional music in the wheels of tereré.


The sarrabulho is a unanimity in Corumba is a high-calorie dish that few know how to prepare. The dish is of Portuguese origin and became popular in the Northeast and also in Corumbá. In northern Portugal is prepared with pieces of pork or lamb. Here, perhaps for the livestock industry and plenty of product, became the choice for beef cattle, should be served with white rice and boiled cassava. Ingredients for preparation: liver, kidneys, heart, and ground beef.


Annatto is a reddish seed, which comes from the Tupi-uru ku, meaning red, popularly known as Annatto, saffron, paprika, scientific name of the botanical family Bixáceas serves as a spice and food coloring. It is widely used in culinary preparations in Pantanal fish, alligators and piranha, the Indians always used to paint the body in their festive celebrations and with it, defending yourself against mosquito bites.


Alligators are reptiles well adapted to the environment and still dominate many habitats. Contrary to what you think the alligator is not slow, if it is threatened or is about to pounce, acquires impressive speed. Inside the water, his attack is usually fatal, since it is an excellent swimmer. Alligators are different from the Pantanal of the Amazon. The Pantanal is measuring up to 2.5 m and feeds on fish and is virtually harmless to humans. While Amazon is a little higher (almost 6 feet) and attack when threatened. Its meat is edible, the most noble animal's body that is exploited is the tail. It is a white meat and consistent. Closely resembles the chicken, but has a mild taste of beef and freshwater fish. It can be served fried or stewed like fish.

Piranha Pantaneiro

Piranhas are a group of carnivorous fish that inhabit freshwater marsh, and some rivers in other Brazilian regions, there are three species of piranha in the Pantanal and they can be dangerous. So in place is usually clean fish is not advisable to dive, because it can bite you by mistake. The piranha can also bite after death. Their sharp teeth can cut flesh and bone until a sudden movement. In the Pantanal region their meat is used to make the famous Piranha Broth. How to prepare the broth: Clean the piranhas, let the head and season with lemon, onion, garlic, green smell, salt and pepper. Let stand for one hour. Heat oil and fry for a few minutes piranhas with all the seasonings, add the peppers and tomatoes, add the tomato paste and water, cover pot and simmer. After an hour make sure the seasoning is good. Strain into a coarse sieve and serve.

Economic activities

The main economic activities are linked to the Pantanal, cattle, which is facilitated by the natural grassland and the lightly salted water in the region, ideal for those animals. For pedestrians, farmers and Lontra, the horse is one of the main means of transport. The fishermen, who seek the rivers their source of livelihood and nutrition. There is also a small indigenous population riverside.

Among the environmental problems of the Pantanal are the ecological imbalance caused by extensive cattle farming, deforestation for charcoal production with destruction of native vegetation, fishing and hunting many species of predatory fish and the alligator, the mining of gold and precious stones, which causes erosion, siltation and pollution of the rivers Paraguay and São Lourenço, uncontrolled tourism that produces waste, and sewage that threatens the peace of the animals, etc..

A relatively new activity is eco-tourism, there are already several lodges pantaneiras practicing this form of sustainable tourism.

Corumbá in the steel and mining activity are important generators of employment and income, the environmental impacts of these activities are being evaluated there is much controversy.

The incentive provided by governments from the 1960s to develop the Midwest region through the implementation of agricultural projects, has brought many changes in the environments of the savanna threatening their biodiversity.

Embrapa Pantanal has been developing sustainable technologies for the region.


According to data from Embrapa Pantanal, the installation of 116 small hydropower (SHP) in the Upper Paraguay, largely responsible for the periodic flooding of the Pantanal, threaten fishing, farming, cattle ranching and tourism fishing, especially because 70% will be concentrated in the same region . The dams prevent fish ascend rivers and the transit of nutrients occurs. Consequently, there is the impact on spawning and feeding fish. Another immediate consequence is the increase in siltation, already apparent in Taquari.



The wetland vegetation is a mosaic of five distinct regions: the Amazon Forest, Cerrado, Caatinga, Atlantic and Chaco (Paraguay, Argentina and Bolivia). During the drought, the fields will turn yellow and the temperature steadily drops to below 0 ° C, frost and records, driven by winds blowing from the south of the continent.

The vegetation of the Pantanal is not homogeneous and there is a different pattern of plants according to soil and altitude. In the lower parts, dominated by grasses, which are areas of natural pastures for livestock - cattle ranching is the main economic activity in the Pantanal. The cerrado vegetation, with medium trees interspersed with shrubs and creepers, appears in the average heights. Few meters above the flood areas, are the clumps of grass, with larger trees and mimosa, ipe and Brazilian pepper tree.

At higher altitudes, the climate becomes arid and dry landscape similar to the caatinga, with typical species such as cactus, water plants, Piúva (family of ipe and yellow with pink flowers), orchids, figs and aroeiras.O Wetland has a rich and varied vegetation, which includes the fauna typical of other biomes, such as the cerrado, a savanna and Amazon. The layer of sludge that is nourishing the soil after flooding allows the development of a rich flora. In areas where floods dominate, but it becomes dry during the winter, occur as the vegetation and palm carandá paratudal.

During the drought, the fields are predominantly covered by grasses and savannah vegetation. This vegetation is also present at the highest points, where no flooding occurs. In points higher still, as the peaks of the hills, there is similar to that of scrub vegetation, with bulging, bromeliads and cactus. There is still the occurrence of water lily, a plant typical of the Amazon. Among the few endemic species is the carandá similar to carnauba.

The aquatic vegetation is essential for life Pantanal: vast areas are covered by Batumi, floating plants like water hyacinth and salvinia. These plants are carried by river water and green islands together form true that in the region are named by water hyacinths. There are still areas in the Pantanal with dense forest and dark. Around the higher margins of rivers occurs acuri palm, forming a forest of trees with other galleries, like the stick-to-beginner, embaúba, jenipapo and fig trees.


The Pantanal fauna is very rich, probably the richest in the world. There are 650 species of birds (over Brazil are cataloged about 1800). The most spectacular is the large blue macaw, an endangered species. There are still storks (the bird symbol of Pantanal), toucans, parrots, egrets, hummingbirds (minors may weigh two grams), herons (heron species of brown coloration) jaçanãs, emus, seriemas, parrots, spoonbills, hawks, ibises and carcarás.

In the Pantanal have been cataloged more than 1,100 species of butterflies. Include over 80 species of mammals, the principal ones are the jaguar (reaches 1.2 m long, 0.85 cm tall and weighs 150 kg), capybara, cub, deer, brocket deer , maned wolf, monkey, Marsh deer, howler (monkey that makes a scary noise in the morning), wild pig, tapir, crab-grass, tapir, sloth bear, otter, cougar, raccoon, armadillo etc.

quarta-feira, 30 de março de 2011

Waterfalls Serra Morena

The Serra do Cipo is a region near Belo Horizonte, capital of Minas Gerais, cut by the Espinhaço and well known for its beautiful scenery and waterfalls. The region encompasses several counties and Cardinal Mota is offering better infrastructure for tourism. The exuberant nature and the varied attractions bring thousands of tourists to the region, both those who seek only to rest or by a waterfall and hiking outdoors, and the lovers of adventure sports like rappelling, trecking, rafting, cascading, frequent the place.
Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipo ensures environmental protection part of the region.

terça-feira, 29 de março de 2011

The Amazon rainforest

The Amazon rainforest is situated in northern South America occupies the territories of Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana.

It is the equatorial forest that occupies the largest in the Amazon territory. It is one of three great world's tropical forests. It is the largest rainforest in the world, though it's smaller than the Siberian Taiga Forest is a forest of coniferous trees in the shape of cones, pine trees.

The forest looks, when seen from above, a continuous layer of hearts wide, located approximately 30 meters above the ground ..

Most of its five million square kilometers, or 42% of Brazilian territory, is composed of a forest that have never flooded, on a plain 130 to 200 meters, formed by sediments of Lake Belterra, which occupied the Amazon basin between 1.8 million and 25,000 years ago. At the time when the Andes rose, the rivers dug its bed, which led the three types of forest in the Amazon.

* Amazon rainforest biome Ecosystem

The Andean mountain forests
Forests land
Forests flooded river

The upland forest, not unlike the Andean forest, except for lower density, is located in uplands rather high (30-200m) and has a soil poor in nutrients. This forced an adaptation of the roots of plants, through a symbiotic association with certain types of fungi, began to rapidly decompose organic matter deposited in the soil to absorb nutrients before they are leached.

The river flooded forest also has some adaptations to conditions such as respiratory roots, which have pores that allow the absorption of atmospheric oxygen. The areas located on low ground and subject to periodic flooding by muddy or turbid water, from rivers in regions rich in organic matter, are called the floodplain forests. And the areas flooded by black water, and running through the sandy soils poor in minerals and they assume a dark color due to organic matter, are called wetland forests. The oscillation of the water level can reach up to ten meters high.

In the Pleistocene the climate of Amazonia alternated between cold-dry, hot-humid and hot-dry. In the last phase cold-dry, about 18 or 12 thousand years, the Amazonian climate was semiarid and the maximum humidity occurred about seven thousand years. In semi-arid phase predominated open vegetation such as savannah and scrub, with refugia where forest survived. Currently the savannah subsist in shelters in the forest interior.

The Amazonian soil is quite poor, with only a thin layer of nutrients. However, the flora and fauna remain under steady state (climax) achieved by the ecosystem. The exploitation of resources is great, with minimal losses. A clear example is in the distribution of mycorrhizas by the steep ground, the roots that ensure a rapid uptake of nutrients that flow with the rain forest. Also, way into the soil a layer of decomposing leaves, twigs and dead animals quickly recovered and converted into nutrients before leaching. Such a conversion takes place because the fungi found there (and who perform the symbiosis) are saprophytic.

Beneath a layer below one meter, the soil becomes sandy and endowed with few nutrients. Therefore - and because of the almost unlimited availability of water, tree roots are short, and the process of support is based on mutual bracing of trees.

The barriers to entry imposed by the abundance of light to make the canopy vegetation is very sparse and the animals that inhabit the soil and vegetation that need. Most of the Amazon fauna consists of animals that inhabit the treetops, between 30 and 50 meters. There occur large animals, such as savannas. In the canopy, among the birds are parrots, toucans and woodpeckers and, among mammals, bats, rodents, monkeys and marsupials.

The fauna and flora have been described in the stunning Amazonian Flora Brasiliensis (15 volumes), Carl von Martius, Austrian naturalist who dedicated much of his life to research in the Amazon, in the nineteenth century. However, species diversity and difficulty of access to high tops make most of the still unknown faunal wealth.

The climate in the Amazon forest is equatorial, hot and humid due to its proximity to the equator (the continuous Atlantic Forest), with temperatures varying little throughout the year. The rains are abundant, with average annual precipitation ranging from 1500 mm to 1700 mm, sometimes exceeding 3000 mm at the mouth of the Amazon River and the coast of Amapa. The rainy season lasts six months.

Morro Father Ignatius

Located at km 231 of BR 242, the Pai Inácio Hill is one of the main cards of the Chapada Diamantina.

Wrapped in stories of times the Colonels and diamond mines, is one of the most visited points of observation in the region and is home to a famous legend that gave rise to its name.

It is said that the slave Ignatius experienced knowledge of the region, led to very Sinha who insisted on knowing the surroundings for a walk. They ended up falling in love. One day were seen and the Colonel was furious to learn he offered manumission to those who surrender. Ignatius took refuge on the hill. Again it was seen and denounced. Colonel accompanied by several slaves who showed him the way he went up the hill and told him to surrender. So Ignatius said: "If it is to die at the hands of my brothers, I'd rather die by nature." Then he opened an umbrella and jumped, but dropped the umbrella and hid in a stone. While everyone believed that he died, Ignatius kidnapped Sinha and the two disappeared together. I heard this story told by the guides with a dose of excitement and surprise is very worthwhile.

The Pai Inácio Hill is 1,150 m above sea level and upstairs has an incredible view with enchanting landscapes on each side that look. Sierra Sincorá the Morrão, Morro do Camelo and at dusk a beautiful view of the setting sun.

A trail of just over 500 m, about 20 to 30 minutes, leads to the top of the hill. The rise is peaceful, with some bumps along the way, perfectly surmountable. The flora, vegetation of the Cerrado, the shapes of the stones, will make the short way, more beautiful.

Besides the beautiful view, the Father Ignatius also provides a visit to the Orchid House located at the foot of the hill. There are hundreds of cultivated orchid species endemic, and several other exotic species. Ali also works with the Miner's Museum permanent exhibition. The site is private property open to the swimming pool, bath spout and a certain infrastructure. Walking about 2 km along a path easy, find the beautiful waterfall of Father Ignatius, with its nearly 3 m high. It has a pool of clear water and ice, where we can cool off after an unforgettable trip full of natural beauty, history, culture and emotion.

Anyone who can face small obstacles and do not have problems with relegation. The track is fast and easy.

How much

Nominal fee of collaboration for the management of tourism use of the Morro do Pai Inácio - Value $ 2.00.

GAP (Group Environmentalist Palmeiras) is responsible for the care of the hill.

National Park of Chapada

The National Park of Chapada dos located in the Chapada dos, northeastern state of Goias, Brazil.

It has an area of ​​65,514 ha, is comprised within an area of ​​high altitude savannah which covers several counties, among them St. John d'Alliance, Alto Paraíso de Goiás, Cavalcante and Colinas do Sul.

The park was created in 1961 by then president, Juscelino Kubitschek, the name of the National Park of Tocantins.

He was recognized as World Natural Heritage by UNESCO in December 2001.

Among the fauna species that inhabit the park, about fifty are classified as rare, endemic or at risk of extinction in the area. Regarding the flora, have been identified 1,476 species of plants in the park, of which 6,429 are in the Cerrado. With respect to birds, 312 species of the highlights are the ostrich, the king vulture and hawk.

The park is located near the village of St. George in the town of Alto Paraiso de Goias, 36 km distant from the city of Alto Paraíso, partially paved road. This access is allowed only when accompanied by registered guides, allowing you to visit the following attractions.

It is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio).

segunda-feira, 28 de março de 2011

Iguazu Waterfalls

The area of ​​the Iguazu Falls are a set of about 275 waterfalls on the Iguazu River (in the catchment area of ​​the Parana River), located between Parque Nacional do Iguacu, Parana, Brazil and Iguazú National Park in Misiones, Argentina . The total area of ​​both national parks, corresponding to 250 000 hectares of subtropical forest and is considered a Natural Heritage of Humanity.

The Argentine National Park was created in 1934, and the Brazilian National Park in 1939 with the purpose of managing and protecting the source of water that represents the cataract and the entire environment around you. Parks both Brazilian and Argentine now considered a World Heritage Site in 1984 and 1986, respectively. Since 2002, the Iguazú National Park is one of geological sites in Brazil.

Historically, the first European to find the Iguazu Falls was the Spaniard Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, in the year 1542.

The Iguazu Falls are participating in the global campaign to choose the New Seven Wonders of Nature organized by the New 7 Wonders Foundation. Cataracts are among the 28 finalists in the campaign, which should last until 2011 when it should be reaching the number 1 billion votes. Another competitor in the competition is the Brazilian Amazon rainforest.

The Park

Aerial panorama of waterfalls of Iguazu, Argentina-Brazil border.
Falls and Brazilian tourist complex.
"Devil's Throat."
Iguazu Falls.

The area of ​​the Falls are about 275 waterfalls, with a height of 70 meters along 2.7 km of the Iguazu River. The Devil's Throat begins in the shape of inverted "U" with 150 meters wide and 80 feet high. See the word "Gorge". The Devil's Throat is the largest, most majestic and impressive of them all. This is divided by the boundary line between Brazil and Argentina. Most of the waterfalls (also called jumps) are in Argentine territory, but both sides are obtained beautiful panoramas.

His name's origin

The word Iguaçu in the Guarani language, is derived from y ("water" "river") and guasu or guaçu ("great"), literally means "big water", or river of "great water." In Spanish, it was officially adopted the spelling Iguazú. But etymology is wrong to write Iguazú with the consonant "z", but should be written or Iguasu Delhi.

Legend of the Falls

A beautiful legend Tupi-Guarani explains the emergence of the Iguazu Falls. "Many years ago, the Iguazu River flowed free, no rapids and even waterfalls. At its margins inhabited caingangues Indians, who believed that a great shaman M'Boy was the serpent-god, son of Tupa. Ignobi, chief of the tribe, had a daughter named suit, which would be dedicated to the worship of God M'Boy, divinity in the form of large snake.

Tarobá young warrior of the tribe falls in love with Naipi and the day of the consecration of a young escape to the river that calls them: - "Tarobá, suit, come with me!" Both went down the river in a canoe.

M'Boy, furious with the fugitives in the form of a large snake, into the ground and wriggled, triggered landslides that were falling on the river, forming the cliffs of the falls. Wrapped in the water, dropped from great height. Tarobá turned into a palm tree on the edge, and the suit, on a stone near the big waterfall, constantly buffeted by the force of water. M'Boy guarded by the serpent god, stay there, Tarobá sentenced to contemplate forever without your loved one can touch it.


Near the falls on both sides of the river, two major cities are located, Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná state in Brazil and Puerto Iguazu in Misiones province in Argentina. Another tourist spot near the falls is the Itaipu Hydroelectric Plant and the region from the ruins of Jesuit missions (the villages of Indians converted to Catholicism) in Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil.

Fernando de Noronha

Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago belonging to the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, consisting of 21 islands and islets, occupying an area of ​​26 square kilometers, situated in the Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio Grande do Norte. District is a state of Pernambuco since 1988, when it ceased to be a federal territory, whose acronym was FN, and the capital was Vila dos Remedios. It is managed by a general manager appointed by the state government. The main island is 17 km ² and is located 545 km to 360 km from Recife and Natal.
After a campaign led by environmentalist gaucho Jose Truda Palazzo Jr., in 1988 most of the archipelago was declared a National Park, about 8 km ², for the protection of endemic species found there and the area of ​​concentration of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris ), who gather daily at the Dolphin Bay - the place of more regular observation of the species on the planet. The shopping center is in Noronha Vila dos Remedios, but is not considered to be the island capital of a state district. The national park is now managed by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio)


The island was discovered by the kingdom of Portugal, was appointed to the Island of St. John Lent, probably by Gaspar de Lemos in 1500, or by an expedition which will Duarte Leite erroneously assigned command Fernão de Noronha, held in 1501-1502. But the first to describe the island was Amerigo Vespucci, who took part in the expedition of Gonçalo Coelho.

The fact already being called the Island Ferdinand Noronha by Frei Vicente do Salvador, as is known today, is justified in the name come from the first owner of the hereditary, Fernao de Noronha or Ferdinand Loronha after donating D. Manuel I on February 16, 1504.

The archipelago was invaded a few times, notably in 1534 by the British, from 1556 until 1612 by the French in 1628 and 1635 by the Dutch, returning to the Portuguese control in 1700, to be re-conquered by the French in 1736 and finally occupied by the Portuguese in 1737.

Prison colony

Before becoming a haven of tourism and ecology of today, the islands were a place of detention of convicts sent to serve time in prison at that place, which ran from 1737 to 1942, while from 1938 onwards only for political prisoners of the New State .