segunda-feira, 28 de março de 2011

Fernando de Noronha

Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago belonging to the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, consisting of 21 islands and islets, occupying an area of ​​26 square kilometers, situated in the Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio Grande do Norte. District is a state of Pernambuco since 1988, when it ceased to be a federal territory, whose acronym was FN, and the capital was Vila dos Remedios. It is managed by a general manager appointed by the state government. The main island is 17 km ² and is located 545 km to 360 km from Recife and Natal.
After a campaign led by environmentalist gaucho Jose Truda Palazzo Jr., in 1988 most of the archipelago was declared a National Park, about 8 km ², for the protection of endemic species found there and the area of ​​concentration of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris ), who gather daily at the Dolphin Bay - the place of more regular observation of the species on the planet. The shopping center is in Noronha Vila dos Remedios, but is not considered to be the island capital of a state district. The national park is now managed by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio)


The island was discovered by the kingdom of Portugal, was appointed to the Island of St. John Lent, probably by Gaspar de Lemos in 1500, or by an expedition which will Duarte Leite erroneously assigned command Fernão de Noronha, held in 1501-1502. But the first to describe the island was Amerigo Vespucci, who took part in the expedition of Gonçalo Coelho.

The fact already being called the Island Ferdinand Noronha by Frei Vicente do Salvador, as is known today, is justified in the name come from the first owner of the hereditary, Fernao de Noronha or Ferdinand Loronha after donating D. Manuel I on February 16, 1504.

The archipelago was invaded a few times, notably in 1534 by the British, from 1556 until 1612 by the French in 1628 and 1635 by the Dutch, returning to the Portuguese control in 1700, to be re-conquered by the French in 1736 and finally occupied by the Portuguese in 1737.

Prison colony

Before becoming a haven of tourism and ecology of today, the islands were a place of detention of convicts sent to serve time in prison at that place, which ran from 1737 to 1942, while from 1938 onwards only for political prisoners of the New State .

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